A. Basic Concepts of nature and Entrepreneurship

Entrepreneurship first appeared in the 18th century begins with new inventions like the steam engine, spinning machine, etc.. Their primary goal is growth and expansion of the organization through innovation and creativity.
Profits and wealth are not the main goal.

Simply meaning entrepreneurs (entrepreneur) is a spirited man who dare to take risks to open a business in a variety of occasions-inclined take risks means independent minded and dare to start a business, without fearful or anxious even in uncertain conditions. (Kasmir, 2007: 18).

Understanding of entrepreneurship vary relative to experts / resource reference with the emphasis of attention or emphasis is different, including the creation of new organizations (Gartner, 1988), running a combination of (activity) a new one (Schumpeter, 1934), exploration of various opportunities (Kirzner, 1973), uncertainty (Knight, 1921), and getting together the factors of production (Say, 1803).

Some of the definitions of entrepreneurship are as follows:

Ø Richard Cantillon (1775)

Entrepreneurship is defined as the work itself (self-employment). An entrepreneur currently buy at a certain price and sell it in the days to come up with an uncertain price.
So the definition is more emphasis on how a person at risk or uncertainty

Ø Say Jean Baptista (1816)

An entrepreneur is the agent who brings together a variety of means of production and find the value of production.

Ø Frank Knight (1921)

Entrepreneurs attempt to predict and respond to market changes. This definition emphasizes the role of entrepreneurs in the face of uncertainty in the market dynamics. An entrepreneur is required to implement basic managerial functions such as direction and control

Ø Joseph Schumpeter (1934)

The entrepreneur is an innovator who implements change within markets through new combinations.

The new combination in the form

(1) introducing a new product or a new quality,

(2) introduce new production methods,

(3) open a new market (new market),

(4) Obtain a new supply source of new materials or components, or

(5) run a new organization in an industry. Schumpeter linking entrepreneurs with innovative concepts that are applied in a business context and to link it with a combination of resources.

Ø Penrose (1963)

Activities include the identification of entrepreneurial opportunities in the economic system. Capacity or managerial capacity in contrast to the entrepreneurial capacity.

Ø Harvey Leibenstein (1968, 1979)

Entrepreneurship includes activities required to create or implement the company when all the market yet or have not been clearly identified, or a component of the production function is not known completely.

Ø Israel Kirzner (1979)

Entrepreneurs recognize and act on market opportunities. Entrepreneurship Center at Miami University of Ohio Entrepreneurship as a process of identifying, developing, and bringing the vision to life. It could be a vision of innovative ideas, opportunities, a better way in doing something. The end result of this process is the creation of new businesses formed in conditions of risk or uncertainty.

Ø Peter F. Drucker

Entrepreneurship is the ability to create something new and different. Understanding the intent that an entrepreneur is a person who has the ability to create something new, different from the others. Or able to create something different from what already exists.

Ø Zimmerer

Entrepreneurship as a process of applying creativity and innovation in solving problems and finding opportunities to improve the lives of (business).

One of the conclusions to be drawn from the notion that entrepreneurship is viewed as a function that includes the exploitation of emerging opportunities in the market.
Exploitation is mostly associated with the direction and or a combination of productive inputs. An entrepreneur is always required to be at risk or opportunities that arise and are often associated with creative and innovative action. Entrepreneurs are people who change the value of the resources, manpower, materials and other production factors become bigger than ever and also the person who made the changes, innovations and new ways. In addition, an entrepreneur running a managerial role in its activities, but the routine management of ongoing operations are not classified as entrepreneurial. An individual may indicate the function of entrepreneurship as an organizational form, but then run the managerial functions without running the entrepreneurial function. So entrepreneurship is temporary or conditional bias.

Another conclusion of entrepreneurship is the process of creating something different value by using the effort and time required, assume financial risk, and social psychology that accompanies it, and receive monetary rewards and personal satisfaction.

The term came later after the entrepreneur and the entrepreneurial equivalent since the beginning some people are less comfortable with the word private. Perceptions about the same as self-employed entrepreneurs as the equivalent of an entrepreneur. The difference is the emphasis on independence (private) on the entrepreneur and the venture (business) on entrepreneurship. The term entrepreneur is now more widely used mainly because it is the emphasis on business terms. However given the challenges faced by youth today many in the field of employment, the self-employed education leads to survival and independence should be more highlighted.

Slight differences in the perception of entrepreneurship and self-employed should be understood, especially by the teachers so that the direction and goals of education provided is incorrect. If that expected from the education given individual is a person who is more mentally or steel or other words to have more emotional intelligence (EQ) and intelligence advirsity (AQ) whose role is to live (life's challenges and life) is more appropriate entrepreneurial education. Conversely, if the direction and purpose of education is to produce individuals who are more astute person in business or money, or to be more financially intelligent (FQ), the more precise is the entrepreneurial education.
Because both aspects are equally important, the education provided is now more likely that these two aspects of using the word entrepreneurship. Perception of entrepreneurs now covers both aspects of financial and personal, social, and professional (Soesarsono, 2002: 48)

2. Entrepreneurial Characteristics and Temperament

Ø The characteristics and nature of entrepreneurship

A. Confident Confidence, independence, individuality, and optimism

2. Task-oriented and results need for achievement, profit-oriented, perseverance and fortitude, determination, hard work, have a strong urge, energetic and initiatives

3. Risk-taking ability to take reasonable risks, and like a challenge

4. Leadership behavior as a leader, along with others, responding to suggestions and criticisms

5. Innovative and creative originality and flexible

6. Oriented to the future or outlook, perspective in the context of a business, an entrepreneur opening a new business (new ventures), which led to the emergence of new products arau idea of ​​organizing services.

Ø Characteristics of a typical entrepreneur (Schermerhorn Jr., 1999):

A. Internal locus of control

2. High energy level

3. High needs for achievement

4. Tolerance of ambiguity

5. Confidence

6. Action-oriented

Ø Characteristics of Entrepreneurs (Masykur W)

A. The desire to excel

2. The desire to be responsible

3. Preference for intermediate risk

4. Perception of the possibility of successful

5. Stimulus for feedback

6. Energetic activity

7. Orientation to the future

8. Skills in organizing

9. Attitudes towards money

Ø Successful entrepreneurs have a standard of achievement (n Ach) high. Entrepreneurial potential can be seen as follows: (Masykur, Winardi)

A. Innovative capabilities

2. Tolerance for ambiguity (ambiguity)

3. The desire to excel

4. Realistic planning capability

5. Goal-oriented leadership

6. Objectivity

7. Personal responsibility

8. Adaptability (Flexibility)

9. organisator and ability as an administrator

10. High level of commitment (survival)

Ø Types of Entrepreneurship (Williamson, 1961)

A. Innovating Entrepreneurship

Experimented aggressively, skilled practice attractive transformations

2 Imitative Entrepreneurship

Imitate successful innovations of the Innovating Entrepreneur

3. Fabian Entrepreneurship

The attitude of a very cautious and skeptical attitude, but the imitation-impersonation implement soon became clear, if they do not do that, they will lose their relative position in the industry concerned.

4. Drone Entrepreneurship

Drone = lazy. Refusal to take advantage of opportunities to implement changes in production even if this formula would result in them losing money compared to other manufacturers. In many developing countries there are still other types of entrepreneurship are called Parasitic Entrepreneurship, in the context of economics known as Rent-seekers (hunter rents). (Winardi, 1977)

3. Entrepreneurship Process

Entrepreneurship stages generally perform entrepreneurial stages:

a) Stage start, the stage at which a person who intends to make an effort to prepare all things necessary, start by looking at new business opportunities that may be whether a new business, make acquisitions, or franchising. Also choose the type of business to be done whether in agriculture, industrial / manufacturing / production or services.

b) Phase conduct business or summarized by stage "road", this stage of an entrepreneur to manage the various aspects associated with its business, including the following aspects: finance, human resources, ownership, organization, leadership, including how to take risks and make decisions, marketing,
and evaluation.

c) Maintain the business, the stage where the entrepreneur based on the results achieved to analyze progress achieved to be followed up in accordance with the conditions encountered

d) Develop a business, the stage where if the results are classified as positive or have developed or be able to survive the expansion of business into one of the options that may be taken.

According to Carol Noore cited by Bygrave (1996: 3), beginning with the entrepreneurial process of innovation. Innovation is caused by various factors both from private and out of personal, such as education, sociology, organization, culture and environment. These factors form the locus of control, creativity, implementation, and growth which later developed into a great entrepreneur.
Internally, the innovation is influenced by factors derived from the individual, such as locus of control, tolerance, values, education, experience. While environmental factors that influence comes from such a role model, activities, and opportunities. Therefore, the innovation into entrepreneurial development through a process influenced by the environment,

organizations and families (Suryana, 2001: 34).

In summary, the entrepreneurial process model includes the following phases (Alma, 2007

: 10 - 12):

A. the innovation process

2. the trigger

3. the implementation process

4. the growth process

Based on the analysis of literature related to entrepreneurship, it is known that these aspects are

need to be considered in making entrepreneurship are:

a. seeking new business opportunities: a long effort was made, and the types of businesses that have been done

b. financing: funding - the amount and sources of funds

c. HR: workforce employed

d. ownership: the roles in the implementation of business

e. organizations: the division of labor among workers who have

f. leadership: honesty, faith, long-term goals, managerial processes (POAC)

g. Marketing: the location and place of business

4. Entrepreneurship Motivation Factors

The characteristics of successful entrepreneurs (Kasmir, 27 - 28)

a. Having a clear vision and purpose. This serves to guess where the pace and direction of the target locations to determine the steps to be undertaken by the employer

b. Initiative and is always proactive. This is a fundamental characteristic in which the entrepreneur is not just waiting for something to happen, but first start and look for opportunities as a pioneer in various activities.

c. Achievement-oriented. Successful entrepreneurs are always chasing a better performance than previous achievements. Product quality, services provided, as well as customer satisfaction is a major concern. Every time a business carried on all the activities are evaluated and must always be better than the previous.

d. Dare to take risks. This is a trait that should be owned by a businessman anytime and anywhere, either in money or time.

e. Hard work. Entrepreneurs working hours are not limited to time, where there are opportunities in which he came. Sometimes an entrepreneur is hard to organize their work time. His mind is always thinking about the progress of his efforts. New ideas are always working hard pushed to make it happen. There are no hard and said no problem that can not be resolved.

f. Responsible for all activities of the executable, either now or in the future. Responsibility of an employer not only in material terms, but also a moral to the various parties.

g. Commitment to characterize the various parties must be adhered to and should be kept. Commitment to do something is an obligation to be observed, the funds realized.

h. Develop and maintain good relationships with various parties, both of which deal directly with the business carried on or not. Good relationships that need to run, among others to: our customers, governments, suppliers, and society at large.

From the analysis of field experience, entrepreneurial traits are essential for success can be summarized in three attitudes, namely:

a. honest, in the sense of daring to express the true state of the business carried on, and would carry out its operations in accordance with its capabilities. This is necessary because the attitude is likely to make the buyer has a high confidence to entrepreneurs that want to be willing to be a customer for a long time ahead

b. have long-term goals, in the sense of having a clear picture of the final development of the business conducted. This is to be able to provide great motivation for entrepreneurs to be able to do the work while at the same time the expected results are also not available.

c. always faithful to pray, which is submission to God to ask for what they want and accept whatever the results obtained. In other languages, it can be argued that "man is trying, but it is God who determines" thus praying is one of the therapy for the maintenance of effort to achieve goals.

Competencies need to be owned by the entrepreneur as well as other professions in life, this competence support towards the success. And & Bradstreet Business Credit Services (1993: 1) proposed 10 competencies to be possessed, namely:

A. knowing your business, that business knows what to do. In other words, an entrepreneur must know everything that has to do with business or business to be conducted.

2. knowing the basic business management, which is know the basics of business management, such as how to design a business, organizing and controlling the company, including to calculate, predict, administer, and record the activities of the business. Knowing means understanding business management tips, how, processes and management of all company resources effectively and efficiently.

3. having the proper attitude, which has the perfect attitude towards the experiment. He should behave like merchants, industrialists, entrepreneurs, executives genuine and not half-hearted.

4. having adequate capital, which has sufficient capital. Capital is not only material but also spiritual form. Confidence and determination are the main capital in the venture. Therefore, it should be enough time, enough money, enough power, and mental place.

5. Effectively managing Finances, which has the ability / financial management, effectively and efficiently, to seek funding and use it appropriately, and control it accurately.

6. managing time efficiently, the ability to manage time efficiently as possible. Organize, calculate, and keep time according to his needs.

7. managing people, namely the ability to plan, organize, directing / motivating, and controlling the people in running the company.

8. statisfying customer by Providing high quality product, which gives satisfaction to customers by providing quality goods and services, rewarding and satisfying.

9. knowing Hozu to Compete, ie knowing the strategy / how to compete. Entrepreneurs should be able to uncover the power (strength), weakness (weaks), opportunities (opportunity), and threats (threat), and the competitors themselves. He had to use a SWOT analysis as well as against him and against competitors.

10. copying with regulation and paper work, which makes the rules / guidelines that clearly express, not implied. (Triton, 2007: 137-139)

Eight steps to the top of his career entrepreneurship (Alma, 106 - 109), consisting of:

A. willing to work hard (capacity for hard work)

2. cooperate with others (getting things done with and through people)

3. looks good (good appearance)

4. sure (self confidence)

5. good at making decisions (sound decision making)

6. would add science (college education)

7. ambition to get ahead (Ambition drives)

8. good at communicating (ability to Communicate)

0 komentar: